选取 debian-11.5.0-amd64-netinst 镜像,安装基础系统(Base)。


sudo sed -i -e 's/bullseye/bookworm/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade 
sudo apt full-upgrade


sudo apt install sway swaybg swayidle swaylock foot wofi seatd waybar xwayland neofetch grim wlogout


编辑 ~/.profile加入以下内容即可:

if [ -z "$DISPLAY" ] && [ "$(tty)" = "/dev/tty1" ]; then
  exec sway


mkdir -p ~/.config/sway
cp /etc/sway/config ~/.config/sway/




set $menu wofi --show=drun --lines=6 --prompt=""


vi /etc/xdg/foot/foot.ini




bindsym $mod+p exec wlogout


推荐使用Quantum’s sway-utils Repository来安装Sway,项目地址为



curl | sudo apt-key add -



deb bullseye main
deb buster main


sudo apt install sway swaybg swayidle swaylock foot wofi seatd waybar xwayland neofetch


mkdir -p ~/.config/sway
cp /etc/sway/config ~/.config/sway/

Append the following to ~/.profile to let GTK and QT apps know that we need them to run with wayland as their backend.

export MOZ_ENABLE_WAYLAND=1 # for firefox
export XDG_SESSION_TYPE=wayland 
export GDK_BACKEND=wayland
export QT_QPA_PLATFORM=wayland


# automatically login into sway
if [ -z $DISPLAY ] && [ "$(tty)" = "/dev/tty1" ]; then
  exec sway


以下介绍如何在 Debian 10 (Buster)安装Sway。

Nightly builds

通过 Debian repository软件源在Debian 10安装 sway

curl | sudo apt-key add -
echo 'deb [arch=amd64] buster main' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sway-utils.list
sudo apt update
sudo apt install sway

从源码安装Sway 1.4

proceed with the manual steps below for installing sway 1.4.

Make sure you have activated the contrib and non-free apt repositories.

sudo sed -i -e 's/main$/main contrib non-free/g' /etc/apt/sources.list

Update apt cache:

sudo apt update

Make sure you have meson (>= 0.53.1) Depends ninja-build (>= 1.6) and python3 if the meson version is satisfied skip next part (go to install 1.4 continued)

Debian stable steps

The stable debian apt source list uses a 0.49.2 version of meson.

get newer version of meson listed here there is 3 ways of doing that

  1. A safe and easy method is to download the deb directly from and use sudo apt install /path/to/package/name.deb or gdebi to try and install it. If there’s dependency issues with the stable libraries, it will refuse to do so.

  2. Debian specifically advises against the following method Add the debian sid mirror to your apt/sources.list discouraged example: deb sid main Then again update the apt cache: sudo apt update and install newest meson sudo apt install meson then you can go and remove the sid mirror from your apt/sources.list and avoid 1000+ upgradable apt packages in sid compared to buster (if you do not remove the sid mirror after installing meson and you run a sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade you may render your system unstable)

Please note that acquiring newer software in this manner is discouraged. Attempting to mix packages between Debian repositories can create unstable situations. If you wish to use newer software, it is best to install packages from backports. Unfortunately as of now the backports only have meson (0.52.1) In general, mixing stable and upstream Debian repos will lead to dependency problems down the road. Later many packages can end up being uninstallable. Debian specifically advises against this method.

  1. The very best method, though it’s the most work, is to backport the newer package from the source code against the stable libraries. This does take some skill for some packages, but absolutely will not break anything. Build a Package from Source

Nevertheless whatever way you choose and you now have meson (>= 0.53.1). Continue with the following steps.

install 1.4 continued

Create a directory to organize sources:

mkdir ~/sway-src

Install wlroots

First we’ll install wlroots 0.10 with almost all extra dependencies (for now meson have been removed from this install line, it will return as soon as the debian stable (buster) apt meson package have been updated to >=0.53.1):

sudo apt install build-essential cmake libwayland-dev wayland-protocols \
 libegl1-mesa-dev libgles2-mesa-dev libdrm-dev libgbm-dev libinput-dev \
 libxkbcommon-dev libudev-dev libpixman-1-dev libsystemd-dev libcap-dev \
 libxcb1-dev libxcb-composite0-dev libxcb-xfixes0-dev libxcb-xinput-dev \
 libxcb-image0-dev libxcb-render-util0-dev libx11-xcb-dev libxcb-icccm4-dev \
 freerdp2-dev libwinpr2-dev libpng-dev libavutil-dev libavcodec-dev \
 libavformat-dev universal-ctags

sudo apt install libelogind-dev libxcb-util0-dev

cd ~/sway-src
git clone
cd wlroots
git checkout 0.10.0
meson build
sudo ninja -C build install

Install json-c

Debian’s json-c version is too old, we need to manually build a newer version:

sudo apt install autoconf libtool

cd ~/sway-src
git clone
cd json-c
git checkout json-c-0.13.1-20180305
./configure --enable-threading --prefix=/usr/local
make -j$CPUCOUNT
sudo make install
sudo ldconfig

Install scdoc (optional)

scdoc is needed for manual pages generation, which I recommend, but Debian’s (stable) scdoc version is also too old, we need to manually build a newer version (or get it via backports):

cd ~/sway-src
git clone
cd scdoc
git checkout 1.10.1
make PREFIX=/usr/local -j$CPUCOUNT
sudo make PREFIX=/usr/local install

Install sway

Next we’ll install sway 1.4:

sudo apt install libpcre3-dev libcairo2-dev libpango1.0-dev libgdk-pixbuf2.0-dev xwayland

cd ~/sway-src
git clone
cd sway
git checkout 1.4
meson build
sudo ninja -C build install

Install swaybg

We need to install swaybg, or else the default configuration won’t work:

cd ~/sway-src
git clone
cd swaybg
git checkout 1.0 
meson build
sudo ninja -C build install

Using sway

If you already have another desktop environment installed, you may be unable to boot to sway without messing with your display manager. To prevent your display manager from starting up on boot you can disable it via Systemd:

sudo systemctl disable gdm3.service

gdm3 is used as an example here, your display manager may differ.

Alternatively, you may prefer to switch the target environment to use by default from to More information on how Systemd targets work is described in this article.

The simple instructions are to first check to see that you are actually using with the command systemctl get-default.

If you are, check to make sure that no critical services will be disabled when changing to multi-user target:

$ systemctl list-dependencies
● ├─accounts-daemon.service
● └─
●   ├─anacron.service
●   ├─
●   │ ├─-.mount

Only items that are children will remain active. If there are any essential services that are direct children of or children of another target that depends on it, you can move their .service file from their appropriate /lib/systemd/system/<target_name>.target.wants to the /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.wants directory.

You can then change to use the multi-user target:

systemctl set-default

By changing to the, you will be prompted to log in at a tty. After logging in you can run sway to start up your new window manager. If you would like to have sway start automatically on a specific tty, you can configure your .bash_profile file to do so:

if [[ -z $DISPLAY ]] && [[ $(tty) = /dev/tty1 ]]; then
  exec sway

If you are on a single-user system and are used to having your account auto-login, you can configure getty to log you into the same tty that you have set to automatically execute sway. See the Arch Wiki on this topic. Note that this should only be done if you have some other layer of security such as a password-protected filesystem which is decrypted on boot.

Last modified 25/10/2022